MORALS

Morals are habits originating from the spirit of man. They are natural capabilities and qualities. These moral qualities have either good or bad consequences.

Politeness, shame, modesty, mildness, generosity, conviction, putting one’s trust in Allah, patience, gratitude, compassion, forgiving, tolerance... are good moral qualities.

Grudge, haughtiness, vanity, lust, hypocrisy, greed, jealousy, mendacity, slander, suspicion ..... are bad moral qualities.

A person has no such bad habits when he is born. He later acquires these bad attributes. It is possible to improve good moral qualities and give up bad ones.

Islam orders the embellishment of morals and abstinence from bad moral characteristics, because Islam consists of good morals.

Allah the Most High praises the morals of His beloved Messenger Muhammad -peace be upon him- in His holy verse:

“An unfailing reward awaits you. Surely you have a Sublime Character.” (Qalam: 3-4)

After the correct belief and worship, Islam gives great importance to morals. The aim of Islam is the perfection of morals.

Laudable moral qualities are the characteristics of our Master Prophets -peace be upon them.

In Islam, spiritual value of man is proportional with his moral attributes.

Our Exalted Prophet -peace be upon him- instrucs in his venerable hadiths:

“Among you, the ones with a perfect morality are the ones with an elevated faith.”

“I have been sent to exalt and complete good morals.”

Muhammad -peace be upon him- has completed good moral quality deficiencies of the previous religions and morals have reached the peak of maturity. His morals are Quranic morals.

He further said:

“The ones who have laudable moral characteristics are blessed men.”

“Allah loves His servant who has good morals.”

“Bad moral qualities corrupt acts of worship and good deeds.”

“He who has bad moral qualities is the most evil man amongst you.”

“Maturity of faith depends on good morals.”

“Wherever you are, fear Allah. After a sin, immediately do an act of kindness to remove that sin. Get on well with people.”

“You can only please people with your good moral attributes and your friendly face but not with your wealth.”

“The ones who have good morals in this world will be my friends in Heaven.”

 

HONESTY

Allah the Most Supreme instructs His believing servants to be honest, righteous; to follow the straight way of Islam and to obey its regulations:

“Therefore stand firm (in the straight Path) as you are commanded.” (Hud: 112)

To be honest for a Muslim means to be right in intention and behavior and to avoid telling lies and hypocrisy.

One of the disciples of Muhammad -peace be upon him- asked: “O Messenger of Allah, say to me such a thing that will suffice me.” He answered:

Say, ‘I believe in Allah’ and then stand straight.”

In a hadith he orders:

“Honesty leads to goodness; goodness leads to Heaven.”

Allah the Most Supreme decrees His servants to be in awe of Him and to speak words straight to the point:

“O you who believe! Fear Allah and (always) say a word directed to the Right; that He may make your conduct whole and sound and forgive you your sins.” (Ahzâb: 70-71)

The tongue is one of the greatest blessings of Allah the Most Great. Although it is small, its acts of obedience or transgression are great.

Due to this, speaking the truth is a crucial duty for every Muslim.

In the noble verse He decrees:

“Speak fair to the people.” (Baqara: 83)

The recording angels record all words of man as well as his deeds:He instructs in the holy Qur’an:

“Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel by him, ready (to note it).” (Qâf: 18)

Muhammad -peace be upon him- informs:

“He, who believes in Allah and the Hereafter, should either speak the truth or be quiet.”

He, who controls his tongue, can also control his other body parts.

The most serious harm of tongue is disbelief utterance of word which causes a man to become an unbeliever.

Slander, lies, calumny, enmity, hypocrisy, insults, mockery, perjury, breaking of hearts... are the catastrophes of tongue.

The sacred hadith:

“He, who kept silence, is saved.” is the best criterion for a Muslim against the harms of tongue.

In Islam, to lie is strictly prohibited.

Almighty Allah requires:

“And shun the word that is false.” (Hajj: 30)

“Allah does not guide one who is a transgressor and a liar.” (Mu’min: 28)

HUMILITY

Humility is the basis and the source of laudable moral qualities. It is one of the good moral attributes of prophets and righteous men. Allah the Most Supreme praises His humble servants in the holy verse:

“And the servants of (God) Most Gracious are those who walk on the earth in humility.” (Furkan: 63)

Its true meaning is to belittle no one and to consider everyone as superior than himself.

When someone sees a person younger than himself, he should think:”O, in his youth he follows the straight way of Islam; he does not take into consideration his soul’s bad desires, he worships and prays. He is a better servant of Allah than me.”

When he sees an elder person, he should think: “He probably worshipped more than me, he is closer than me to Almighty Allah.”

When he sees an ignorant man, he should suppose: “He unknowingly commits sins whereas I knowingly do.”

When he encounters or hears a disbeliever, he should think: “Maybe, one day he can become a believer and follow the straight way of Islam. But I can die as an unbeliever because of my sins.” It is meant here that nobody can know whether he or she will die believing or disbelieving.

The Messenger of Allah -may Allah commend and salute him- was both dignified and humble. Although his companions were ready to serve him and to die for the sake of Islam and for him; he personally did his work. Because he was at the highest degree of humility, he patched his clothes, he repaired his shoes, swept the house, he prepared dough by kneeding, he fleeced sheep, he gave fodder to animals, he visited sick people, he participated in funerals, he personally entertained his guests and served them. He visited his disciples in their houses. He always loved the poor, he helped the widows, the indigents.

He never liked to be praised. He did not sit apart in a special place in meetings.

He stated:

“Allah raises the man who behaves humbly for the sake of Allah.”

 

FORGIVENESS AND TOLERANCE

Allah the Most Great declares in His holy verse that forgiveness and tolerance are more virtuous than grudge and revenge:

“But indeed if any show patience and forgive that would truly be an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs.” (Shűrâ: 43)

“The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): But if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: He does not love the wrong-doers.” (Shűrâ: 40)

Allah the Most High forgives the sins of His servants and does not torment them. The servants should also forgive harm done to them even if they have the opportunity to take vengeance. It is harder to be patient and forgive than to bluster about and punish the guilty. Allah the Most Supreme commands us to forgive.

In the verses, He instructs:

“Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn away from the ignorant.” (A’raf: 199)

“So overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Hijr: 85)

“Those who spend (freely) whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men; for Allah loves those who do good.” (Âl’ Imrân: 134)

“The remission is the nearest to righteousness.” (Baqara: 237)

“If you forgive evil, surely Allah is Forgiving, Powerful.” (Nisâ: 149)

“Let them forgive and overlook. Do you not wish that Allah should forgive you? For Allah is Forgiving, Most-Merciful.” (Nűr: 22)

“But if you forgive and overlook, and cover up (their faults); verily Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Taghâbun: 14)

The best example of this moral virtue is the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad, -peace be upon him.

He always forgave injuries and harm done to him; he never sought revenge against his own person.

In one instance In order to spread Islam, he went to a town. The people of that town not only repudiated him but also stoned him.He was severly injured. Yet he did not curse them; he prayed to Allah the Most High for their guidance.

During a battle, the unbelievers wounded his face breaking a tooth. He did not curse them but prayed the following: “How would these people who want to slay their prophet reach salvation. My Lord, give to my people guidance because they do not know.”

In Mecca, for 13 years, disbelievers continuously tormented him and the Muslims. They mocked, insulted and threatened him. They threw disgusting things at him. They called him “magician, soothsayer, mad...” They cast thorns on the pathways he used. They threw a lasso around his neck and tried to drag him along the ground. For a long time, they besieged his companions. At last, they forced him and the Muslims to leave their native land.

Later, when Mecca was conquered, he had the opportunity to take revenge for the cruelties done earlier. All his enemies were waiting to be killed by the Muslims. Moreover, they were aware that they had deserved such a fate.

Muhammad -peace be upon him- asked them: “What do you expect for me to do with you?” They responded: “We expect goodness from you. You are a generous man and the son of a generous man...”

Muhammad -peace be upon him- said: “I say to you the words that Joseph -peace be upon him- had said to his brothers. You are free, you can go. You will not be held responsible today.”

Muhammad -peace be upon him- orders:

“I’m the enemy of the man who vexes a non-Muslim who is under the protection of Islamic state.”

“The true Muslim is a man that other Muslims are safe from his tongue and hands.”

 

COMPASSION AND

MERCY

To respect elders, to feel compassion for youth, to act tolerantly to human beings of the same age are moral virtues stressed by Islam. To keep Allah the Most Great’s commandments and to show kindness to His creatures are important graces.

Before beginning a work, Muslims are ordered to begin it with the “Bismillahirrahmanirrahim” (Bismillah) which means “in the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” This indicates Allah has infinite Mercy. Everything is the manifestation of the divine Mercy. The angels pray as such:

“Our Lord! You embrace everything in Your mercy and knowledge.” (Mu’min: 7)

Muslims say in their prayers:

“So say: ‘O my Lord! Grant You forgiveness and mercy! For You are the best of those who show mercy!” (Muminun: 118)

And Muhammad -peace be upon him- declared the following:

“Allah has no Mercy on men who do not pity people.”

One day, some people came to visit the Prophet. They asked “O Messenger of Allah! Do you kiss your children?” When he responded “Yes” they said “For the Lord’s sake, we do not.” He said. “If Allah has taken compassion away from your hearts, how can I give it back?”

He stated in his hadiths:

“He, who does not pity children and who does not respect and obey elders, is not of our prominent community.”

“Men of mild dispositions are honored in this world and in the hereafter.”

 

IRRITABILITY

AND

MEDIATION

Muslims are brothers. Therefore words and acts which harm this brotherhood are strictly prohibited. To act sharply to another Muslim is forbidden.

Muhammad -peace be upon him- informs:

“Each Monday and Thursday the deeds of people are presented to Allah. Allah the Most High forgives all sins of His servants who do not attribute a partner or partners to Him. But He does not forgive a man who bears a grudge to another Muslim; He says ‘Until they make peace with each other, leave them.”

If this contention is between relatives, its responsibility is much more serious.

To make peace between contending Muslims is a duty for other Muslims.

In the verses, He decrees:

“The believers are but a single brotherhood: So make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers.” (Hujurat: 10)

“In most of their secret talks there is no good: But if one exhorts to a deed of charity or justice or conciliation between men, (secrecy is permissible): To him who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, We shall soon give a reward of the highest (value).” (Nisâ: 114)

The Messenger of Allah Muhammad -peace be upon him- personally made reconciliation between contending men and has also recommended mediation to all Muslims.

He stated:

“To remove antagonism between two men is a good charity.”

“In order to make peace between people, you may lie.”

Although to lie is a major sin in Islam, the Messenger of Allah Muhammad -peace be upon him- has permitted it in order to make peace between people and between a husband and wife.

 

HELPING THE NEEDY

To help the needy is an order of Almighty Allah.

He decrees in the holy Qur’an:

“Believe in Allah and His messenger, and give in alms of that which He has made you to inherit; for whoever of you believes and gives in alms will be richly rewarded.” (Hadid: 7)

From this holy verse, we understand that helping the needy is one of the important good deeds.

In the holy verse, it is pointed out that the transferred wealth in reality belongs to Allah. And He gives authority to His believers to spend it according to the divine order.

As a result of this, we should spend in charity His wealth for His way and for His Good Approval. A believer should not forget that he is only an agent of His wealth.

Almighty Allah enjoins in the noble verse:

“And let not those who covetously withhold of the gifts which Allah has given them of His Grace, think that it is good for them: No it will be the worse for them: Soon shall the things which they covetously withheld be tied to their necks like a twisted collar on the Day of Judgment. To Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth; and Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do.” (Al’ Imran: 180)

Islam encourages Muslims to spend in charity to the needy.

He, who can not fast in Ramadan due to illness or old age, must feed an indigent person.

Before the three day religious feast at the end of Ramadan, each capable Muslim should spend in charity some prescribed amount from his or her wealth.

In the religious festival of sacrifice; rich Muslims sacrifice animals such as sheep, cattle, camels... and give some parts of these sacrified animals to the poor.

Muslims perform their vows by feeding the needy.

If a Muslim violates his or her oath, he or she should feed ten indigent people or clothe them.

If a Muslim violates a pilgrimage rule in Mecca, he should sacrifice an animal and distribute its meat to the needy.

Moreover, Almighty Allah prohibits Muslims from repulsing people who come with petitions.

He requires in the noble verse:

“And as for the beggar, do not repel him.” (Duhâ: 10)

 

TO OBEY PARENTS

In the holy Qur’an it is ordained that obeying parents is a duty for every Muslim. It is also pointed out that a man should be respectful to his parents and get on well with them.

Almighty Allah requires in the noble verse:

“Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good to parents.” (Nisâ: 36)

On the other hand, to disobey and grieve them, to hurt their feelings are absolutely and strictly forbidden.

Muhammad the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- declares as follows: “Allah’s Good Approval is within the approval of parents and His wrath is within their wrath.”

“First, Allah the Most High loves the prescribed prayer performed in due time. Secondly He loves obeying parents and thirdly jihad (struggle for the sake of Allah)”

If we think of their self-sacrifice and devotion for us, we can easily conclude that nothing can repay them.

Therefore, a person must rightfully and properly perform his or her duties to them. He or she should meet all their needs, abstain from breaking their hearts, forgive their faults, always talk of their goodness in the presence of others, not complain of them (even by saying “fie” to them) and pray for them.

 

THE DOCTRINE OF TRUST

A trust is a material or moral thing given to a man for protection and guardianship.

Allah the Most Great orders:

“And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, let the trustee (faithfully) discharge his trust, and let him fear his Lord.” (Baqara: 283)

Muhammad -peace be upon him- declares:

“Trust is an honor.”

To respect and protect trust is an indication of mature faith. Guarding a trust is a characteristic of a Muslim. Allah the Most High declares:

“Those who faithfully observe their trusts and their covenants.” (Mu’minűn: 8)

In a holy verse, Allah the Most High orders that man bore a trust and He adds that this is very serious and great thing:

“We did indeed offer the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: But man undertook it; he was indeed unjust and foolish.” (Ahzâb: 72)

Therefore, it is an important duty for a man to use trust as ordered or expected by its owner, Allah the Most High.

Trust has a broad meaning. There are religious, worldly and ethical trusts.

Islam as a whole together with its orders and prohibitions is a divine trust. Those who do not follow its instructions are the ones who do not respect and protect that trust.

The body, its organs are themselves trusts. A human being should safeguard his or her material and moral health; he should use his reason for good and righteous deeds, he should be aware of his responsibilities.

It is a trust to get on well, under the Islamic laws, with mother, father, relatives, neighbors, friends, poor people, widows, orphans, i.e. everybody.

Words and secrets spoken in a meeting and in a conversation are also trusts. Those words considered spoken in confidence, secrectly, must not be spoken publicly.

Muhammad -peace be upon him- informs:

“Conversations in meetings must be kept secret.”

To give correct information to a man who asks advice is a trust.

A worker must properly and rightfully work in order to deserve his wage. He should be aware of his responsibility. This is a trust. At the same time, employees are trusts to employers. Employers have to respect their rights.

Even to respect the rights of animals is a trust.

All religious or worldly tasks are trusts. It is a divine order to render back the tasks to those to whom they are due.

Allah the Most High decrees:

“Surely, Allah commands you to render back things held in trust to their rightful owners, and if you judge between mankind, that you judge justly.” (Nisâ: 58)

This verse descended during the conquest of Mecca:

Osman, the son of Talha, was responsible of the care and cleaning of the Kaaba. When the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- conquered Mecca, Osman was not Muslim, yet. He locked the door of the Kaaba and refused to give its key. He said: “If I knew you were a prophet, I would give it to you.” As a result of this, Ali -may Allah be well pleased with him- (one of Muhammad’s -peace be upon him- companions) took the key by force and opened the door of the Kaaba.

The uncle of Muhammad -peace be upon him- wanted of the Prophet to take charge of the Kaaba and its key. At the same time, this verse was revealed. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad -peace be upon him- ordered Ali to give the key back to Osman and to apologize to him.

When the key was given back to him, Osman asked the reason. Ali -may Allah be well pleased with him- said: “This is a Divine order.” and recited the new verse. Osman, the son of Talha, was so touched by the importance of justice and trust in Islam that he accepted Muhammad’s -peace be upon him- prophethood and became Muslim.

 

THE AVOIDANCE EVIL OPINIONS

In Islam to have evil opinions about someone without real evidence is prohibited.

Almighty Allah orders in the holy Qur’an:

“O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion, for in some cases suspicion is a crime. Do not spy (on one another), nor backbite one another. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Surely you would abhor it. Have fear of Allah.” (Hujurât: 12)

Muhammad -peace be upon him- the Messenger of Allah states:

“Refrain from evil suspicions and opinions. Because they are in reality major lies.

Awe of Allah and righteousness are in the heart of a man and only Allah knows what is inside. Because of this, one can not consider that others are bad only by their physical appareances. Moreover, evil suspicion leads to arrogance.

On the other hand, holding a good opinion about someone is a virtuous habit. It is a consequence of spiritual maturity.

Muhammad -peace be upon him- the Messenger of Allah instructs:

“To have good opinions about Muslims is regarded as an admirable worship.”

 

NOT TO SPEAK ILL OF

EACH OTHER

(IN THEIR ABSENCE)

To speak ill of each other (in their absence) removes good virtues among people such as love, respect, affection, cooperation and promotes the appearance of bad habits such as enmity, grudge, malevolence...

Almighty Allah states:

“O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion, for in some cases suspicion is a crime. Do not spy (on one another), nor backbite one another. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Surely you would abhor it. Have fear of Allah.” (Hujurât: 12)

“Allah loves not that evil should be noised abroad in public speech, except where injustice has been done; for Allah is He who hears and knows all things.” (Nisâ: 148)

Muhammad -peace be upon him- the Messenger of Allah informs:

“To speak ill of someone is to remember your Muslim brother by a way that he will not appreciate. If he bears that title, you have spoken ill of him; if not you have slandered.”

A man who approves of the ill-speaking or remains silent while another does it, also commits the sin.

Muhammad -peace be upon him- instructs:

“Abstain from backbiting because some backbitings are worse than adultery.”

 

ABSTINANCE FROM EXTRAVAGANCE

To earn money honestly and to spend it according to the Good Approval of Allah the Most High are encouraged in Islam. Whereas to squander and misuse the wealth are forbidden.

Almighty Allah proclaims:

“Eat and drink but waste not by excess, for Allah loves not the wasters.” (A’râf: 31)

Wealth and property are the trusts of Allah. Wealth should be properly guarded. For the continuation of life, Islam orders balanced spending.

For all wastage in excess, man will be held responsible. In another holy verse of the holy Qur’an, Allah the Most Supreme describes spend-thrifts as the brothers of Satan.

All spendings for prohibited and unnecessary things are extravagances. Even in charity, we should not be extravagant so as to cause us to become indigent. This is also forbidden. Extravagance is the extreme point of generosity.

Generosity must be a habit of Muslims and Islam praises open-handedness.

Muhammad -peace be upon him- instructs:

“A generous man is close to Allah, people, Heaven and is far from Hell.”

Almighty Allah orders:

“Do not tie your hand to your neck (do not be miserly) nor stretch it without any restraint (i.e. do not be extravagant) for then you should sit down rebuked, denuded.” (Isrâ: 29)

From this noble verse, we conclude that, if necessary we should abundantly spend but if not we must guard our wealth. We should maintain a balance.

“Those who, when they spend, are not extravagant and not niggardly, but hold a just (balance) between those (extremes).” (Furqan:67)

Niggardliness is a serious illness of soul. Contrary to generosity, niggardliness is an evil habit of man.

The Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- states as follows:

“A niggardly person is far from Allah, the common people and Paradise and has come near to Hell .”

 

PURENESS

Islam is based on cleanliness and purity. Islam stresses the importance of cleanliness. It orders Muslims to pay attention to the purity regarding their health and their religious duties.

He orders:

“Allah loves those who make themselves pure.” (Tawba: 108)

The Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- considered purity as half of faith. He also added that a pure man is healthy.

Allah the Most High requires:

“O Children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer.” (A’raf: 31) This is a divine order.

When you intend to meet someone or to participate in a meeting you wear your best and clean clothes; you should also apply this principle when you apply yourself to the Presence of Allah.

Islam regards cleanliness as a form of worship. In order to perform the regular prayers, Muslims have to perform ablution. If it is necessary, a Muslim must perform total ablution by bathing the whole body. To perform the regular prayers, clothes, body and the place of worship must be clean.

The regular prayers are a condition of Islam. On the other hand purity is a precondition of the regular prayers.

The Messenger of Allah-peace be upon him- informs:

“Without doubt on the Day of Judgment those parts of my followers’ bodies which were washed in ablution will be radiant with light. So whoever amongst you who so desires let him increase his radiance.”

“All the sins of a Muslim performed by his body parts fall away from him with the water from the ablutions. When he washes his arms the sins are washed away even until the last drop. Until he finishes the ablution he is free from those sins.”

The ablution is a type of cleansing performed with water.

Allah the Most Great ordains in His holy verse:

“O you who believe! When you prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles.” (Maida:6)

This is a duty on every Muslim.

TOTAL ABLUTION

After ceremonial impurity, at times when ladies finish their confinement after birth or at the end of their monthly periods, a Muslim has to perform total ablution.

He commands in the holy Qur’an:

“If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body.” (Mâ’ida: 6)

This is a divine command and a serious duty on Muslims.

To wash the whole body from head to foot without leaving a single dry point is called total ablution.When it is necessary, a Muslim must immediately perform total ablution. It is a sin to neglect total ablution. A person who is in need of total ablution is not allowed to touch and read the holy Qur’an.

 

ON WEARING CLEAN, PURE AND

LAWFULLY EARNED CLOTHES

Allah the Most Great allows His servants to wear pure and honestly earned clothes. He wants to see signs of His blessings on His servants.

In the holy Qur’an He commands:

“O you Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover your shame, as well as to be an adornment to you.” (A’râf: 26)

“O Children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer.” (A’râf: 31)

Every Muslim has to wear clothing in order to cover the privy parts of his or her body and to protect himself from the elements.

Privy parts for man are the parts between navel and kneecap. For women all the body except face, hands and feet.

For all Muslims it is forbidden to wear stolen clothes.

To wear clothes in order to be vain and to display his wealth was not forbidden by Allah but looked upon with horror and disgust by the Messenger of Allah.

The covering of women is a duty in Islam. Islam clearly and strictly orders women to wear the veil in order to protect them from evil looks, to frustrate disorder and sedition and to prevent them from being defamed and attacked.

Because the desire to wear ornaments is in the nature of women, Islam gives this permission to them. But it also adds that they should not display their beauty and ornaments to canonically forbidden men.

For women wearing thin and transparent clothes which show the skin is also prohibited.

The wife of the Messenger of Allah Muhammad -peace be upon him-, our mother Aisha said to women who wear thin and transparent dress: “If you are Muslims, your clothes are not those of Muslims.”

For man to imitate women and to dress like them is absolutely prohibited. Likewise, for women to imitate men and to wear men’s clothing is prohibited.

The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad-peace be upon him- has cursed men imitating women and women imitating men.


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