Faith is an act of unconditional confirmation. It is to accept voluntarily what is said, to confirm with heart without doubt.
As for Islam, it is to believe in the existence and unity of Allah the Most High, to believe in Muhammad as the servant and Messenger of Allah and also to believe in the orders and the rules of Islam, without reservation.
The one who confirms the confession of faith (“I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah and Muhammad is the servant and the Messenger of Allah.”) with tongue and heart is called Mü’min which means believer.
According to Islam, faith begins with believing in Allah the Most High and His prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him- and this also includes the belief in Allah, His angels, His books, His prophets, the Hereafter, qadar(fate) and qada (Allah’s decree).
TO BELIEVE IN
THE MOST HIGH
Each mature and wise man must have faith in the existence and the Unity of Allah the Most Supreme. Even people, who do not have any information and knowledge about religions, have to find the existence and the oneness of Allah, within their reasoning capacities. Because Almighty Allah has created men with the ability of perceiving and believing in their Creator. This ability exists in the nature of man.
Even people who do not believe in Allah the Most High, when they get into trouble, pray to Him.
About this matter, Allah the Most High requires in the noble verse:
“Now, if they embark on a boat, they call on Allah making their devotion sincerely (and exclusively) to Him; but when He has delivered them safely to (dry) land, behold, they give a share (of their worship to others)!” (Ankabut: 65)
Man, who has a capacity to distinguish right from wrong, beautiful from ugly, good from bad, also has the ability to have faith in Allah, because creation is intrinsicly directed towards Him.
Allah the Most Supreme, in accordance with His Compassion, has supported men with His prophets. There is the necessity of divine communication in order to inform man of His will and orders.
Everything in the universe bears witness to the existence of Allah the Most High.
In these noble verses it is ordered:
“Say: ‘Behold all that is in the heavens and on earth.’; but neither signs nor warners profit those who believe not.” (Yunus: 101)
“Well, (O Muhammad) it may be that you will torment your soul with grief for their sake, if they do not believe in this Message.
That which is on earth we have made but as a glittering show for the earth. In order that we may test them as to which of them are best in conduct.
Verily what is on earth we shall make but as dust and dry soil (without growth or herbage).” (Kahf: 6-7-8)
Amazing things in the universe, are the signs of His Omnipotence.
Heavens, stars, seas, seasons, winds are under His command. Everything exists with His permission.
It is Allah who made night for us in order to rest and made daytime in order to work.
If He continuously prolongs night till the doomsday; who can illuminate the world? If He continuously prolongs daytime till the doomsday, who can darken the world?
He has granted such vast and infinite favors to us and in return He did not ask anything. He only wanted us to know and serve Him.
In the noble verse He decrees:
“That is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things: Then worship you Him. And He has power to dispose of all affairs.” (An’âm: 102)
The sura “Ikhlas” (Purity in faith) wonderfully describes Islam’s understanding of Allah, His Existence and His Oneness.
“Say: ‘He is Allah, the One and Only. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute. He begetteth not, nor is He begotten. And there is none like unto Him.” (Ikhlâs)
The word “Ahad” which means “the One and Only” belongs only and only to Him. He is the One and Only God; the only One to whom worship is due.
His attributes belong only to Him. The creatures merely have little reflections of His attributes. From these we perceive Allah the Most High’s attributes. He is One in His acts. He is not in need of any assistance in creating, maintaining, and controlling His creation. He is One in His names, unique in His honor.
He is One in His decisions. Sovereignty is His glory. Allah is “Samad” which means the Eternal and Absolute. Absolute existence can only be predicated to Him. He is the sole competent authority for all needs and wishes of creation.
Allah has created man; He has granted him infinite blessings, He has let him live in His property, He has provided everything to man. All desires and necessities are only sought from Him.
When wishes increase, His blessings increase, too. His goodness and kindness is absolute.
He informs in the holy Qur’an:
“And He gives you of all that you ask Him.” (Abraham: 34)
He is dependent on no person or thing but all people and things are dependent on Him. He is the Lord whose generosity is inexhaustible.
“He begetteth not, nor is He begotten.” He is exempt from having a son or a father.
The Jews said, “Uzair is the son of Allah.” The Christians said, “Jesus is the son of Allah.” As for Arab pagans they said, “The angels are the daughters of Allah.” Each of these groups corrupted the creed of the Oneness of Allah and ruined the reality of monotheism.
Because of their slanders, they were subjected to divine torment:
“At it the skies are ready to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin.
That they should invoke a son for the Beneficent.
For it is not consonant with the majesty of the Beneficent that He should beget a son.” (Mary: 90-91-92)
With the statement “He begetteth not, nor is He begotten”, Muslims are saved from all these corrupt creeds.
Allah the Most Supreme declares “And there is none like unto Him”; He is not like any other person or thing that we know or can imagine.
THE ATTRIBUTES OF
We are unable and uncapable to perceive the Personality of our Creator. We can only know Allah the Most High by His attributes.
His suplime attributes explains His Power, Greatness, Honor, Glory, Generosity which are totally beyond our understanding.
We learn these attributes from holy verses and hadiths.
Some of them are only peculiar to Him; they are called “Personal attributes.” His other attributes are called “Inherent attributes.”
None of His attributes can be compared or equated to those of creatures.
A. PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES
1) Vucud (Existing):
This means the existence of Allah the Most Supreme. His existence is by His Personality.
In His holy verse:
“Verily, I am Allah.” (Taha: 14)
2) Kýdem (Eternity):
His existence is eternal; this means the lack of a beginning to His existence.
In the holy verse it is instructed:
“He is the First and the Last.” (Hadid: 3)
3) Beka (Continuance):
The existence of Allah the Most Great is endless. There can not be any change in His existence. He is free from non-existing.
He states in His holy verses.
“Everything (that exists) will perish except His own Face.” (Kasas: 88)
“All that is on earth will perish .
But will abide (for ever) the face of your Lord.” (Rahman: 26-27)
4) Vahdaniyet (Oneness):
This means the fact of Allah the Most Supreme’s Oneness.
It is stated in the holy verse:
“Say: ‘He is Allah, the One and Only.” (Ikhlas: 1)
He is One and Unique in His Personality, Attributes, Acts.
In another holy verse:
“If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allah, there would have been confusion in both.” (Anbiya: 22)
5) Muhalafat lil-havadis. (Difference from originated things):
He is dissimilar in His Personality, Acts and Attributes in relation to His creation.
In the holy verse it is decreed:
“There is nothing whatever like unto Him.” (Shura: 11)
6) Kýyam bi Nafsih (Self-subsistence):
He is not in need of anyone or anything for His existence. His existence is by Himself.
In His holy verse:
“For Allah is free of all needs from all creation.” (Ankebut: 6)
B. INHERENT ATTRIBUTES
1) Hayat (Living):
Allah the Most Great is always alive. He never dies.
In His holy verse:
“And put your trust in Him who lives and dies not.” (Furqan: 58)
It is He who gives life to creatures; He is the source of all lives.
He orders in another holy verse:
“Allah! There is no god but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal.” (Baqara: 255)
2) Ilim (Knowledge):
Allah the Most High knows everything
He declares in His holy verse:
“Should He not know, He that created?” (Mulk: 14)
There is no increase or decrease in His knowledge. He knows the known, the unknown.
In another holy verse He commands:
“With Him are the keys of the unseen, the treasures that none knows but He. He knows whatever there is on the earth and in the sea. Not a leaf does fall but with His knowledge: There is not a grain in the darkness (or depths) of the earth, nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered), but is (inscribed) in a Record clear (to those who can read).” (An’am: 59)
3) Semi (Hearing):
Allah the Most Supreme hears everything.
“I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calls on Me.” (Baqara: 186)
At the same time He hears every sound. He does not need air, an ear in order to hear. The quality of hearing for Allah is without resemblance to others.
4) Basar (Seeing):
Allah the Most High sees everything.
In His holy verse:
“For He does know and regard all His servants.” (Isra: 30)
He does not need light, an eye in order to see. There is no limit on His ability to see. The quality of sight for Allah is without resemblance to others.
5) Irade (Willing):
Allah the Most High implements whatever He wills.
He instructs in the holy verse:
“Allah creates what He wills. When He has decreed a plan, He but says to it, ‘Be’, and it is.” (Al’ Imran: 47)
No one can change His decree. Something exists if He wills. If He does not will, nothing can take place.
Another holy verse:
“But you will not except as Allah wills.” (Insan: 30)
6) Qudrat (All-Sustaining Power):
Allah the Most Supreme has an endless power over all things.
He states in a holy verse:
“Nor is Allah to be frustrated by anything whatever in the heavens or on earth: For He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful.” (Fatýr: 44)
No power or force can challenge His Qudrat (All-sustaining Power). He has created everything from nothing in order to show His Power and Decree.
7) Kalam (Speech):
Allah the Most High speaks.
It is declared in a holy verse:
“And to Moses Allah spoke direct.” (Nisa: 164)
The holy Qur’an and other holy books are Allah’s words. He has informed His slaves of His orders, prohibitions; He has given good news and warning.
His words are peculiar to Him. He is not in need of a tongue, sound, air, letter or word in order for Him to speak.
It is stated in another holy verse:
“The word of your Lord does find its fulfilment in truth and in justice: None can change His words: For He is the one who hears and knows all.” (An’am: 115)
8) Takwin (Bringing into being):
Allah the Most Great is the Creator; there is no creator but Him.
In His holy verse He informs:
“Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Guardian and Disposer of all affairs.” (Zumar: 62)
When He wills to create something, He is unrestricted by time, place, prototype or previously construed concept. He wills something and it comes into existence.
A holy verse:
“And for Him it is most easy.” (Rum: 27)
TO BELIEVE IN
THE ANGELS OF ALLAH
Allah the Most High has created angels as His believing, honored, innocent, spiritual servants.
To believe in angels is one of the basic principles of faith. To deny angels is to repudiate Messengers, their books and their religions because all religious rules were sent down by inspiration and by means of an Angel to Prophets.
In the noble verse:
“Whoever disbelieves in Allah and His Angels and His Scriptures and His Messengers and the Last Day, he assuredly has gone far astray.” (Nisâ: 136)
In the holy Qur’an, there are verses which state that to believe in angels is an obligatory duty.
“Each one (of them) believes in Allah, His angels, His books, and His apostles.” (Baqara: 285)
“But it is righteousness to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Books, and the Messengers.” (Baqara: 177)
The most reliable information about angels can be deduced from the holy Qur’an. There are about ninety verses concerning angels.
THE FEATURES OF THE ANGELS
They were created before men. Because Allah the Most Great informed them when He would create man and make him the vicegerent on earth.
They never transgress against Allah the Most High; they always obey His orders. They continuously perform their duties without boredom or fatigue. They are occupied with worship and prayer.
Allah the Most Supreme orders in the holy Qur’an:
“(Angels) who flinch not (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded.” (Tahrim: 6)
“Even those who are in His (very) presence are not too proud to serve Him, nor are they (ever) weary (of his service).
They celebrate His praises night and day, nor do they ever flag or intermit.” (Anbiyâ: 19-20)
“They all revere their Lord, High above them.” (Nahl: 50)
They have no ability of doing evil; obedience is in their nature.
In the holy Qur’an, it is stated that men were created from dust, Jinns and Satan from fire. According to a hadith angels were created from light.
Because they were created from light, they are not perceptible to human-eyes. If they could be seen, men could not endure their brilliance.
In the noble verse:
“Had We appointed an angel (as Our messenger), We assuredly had made him (as) a man.” (An’âm: 9)
Only the prophets can see them with their original shapes. If they convert their essential shapes to human shape, they can be seen by people. The proof of this: The Archangel Gabriel -peace be upon him- had come Muhammad -peace be upon him- in the form of a human being teaching the meaning of Islam, of faith and of perfection ; moreover this conversation had been seen by many companions of the Prophet including Umar.
The angels, by Allah’s leave, can take different shapes. The Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- had seen the Archangel Gabriel -peace be upon him- in the shape of Dýhye’tül Kelbî -may Allah be well pleased with him- who was one of the disciples of the Prophet. Muhammad -peace be upon him- saw Gabriel -peace be upon him- in his essential configuration when he seemed to fill the whole sky.
The angels, who announced to Abraham -peace be upon him- that he would have a son, were in the form of human beings.
They came to Lot -peace be upon him- in the configuration of handsome young men.
The Archangel Gabriel had showed himself to Mary in the shape of a man.
The angels are very strong, powerful and quick creatures. In a moment, they can reach far distant places.
Allah the Most High enjoins:
“The angels and the Spirit ascend unto Him in a day, the measure whereof is (as) fifty thousand years.” (Ma’ârij: 4)
The Throne is borne by four angels; on the doomsday their numbers will be eight.
In the noble verse:
“And the angels will be on its sides, and eight will, that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord above them.” (Haqqah: 17)
The Throne is the largest in creation.
Some of the angels circumambulate the Throne.
Allah the Most High orders:
“And you will see the angels surrounding the Throne (Divine) on all sides, singing glory and praise to their Lord.” (Zumar: 75)
The angels have wings. Their wings, as their lives, are also spiritual.
The number of their wings differentiates according to their tasks.
In the noble verse:
“Praise be to Allah who created (out of nothing) the heavens and the earth, who made the angels messengers with wings, two, or three, or four(pairs).” (Fâtýr: 1)
The nature of these wings is not within our ability to conceive. They can only be known by Allah the Most High and by the prophets who saw them.
There exist innumerable angels. There are worshipping angels in every place of the heavens.
They do not eat, drink, sleep and there is no masculinity or feminity for them. At the sound of the first trumpet they will cease to exist like all creation, then after the second trumpet of the Day of Judgment, they will be revived in order to perform their tasks.
THE TASKS OF THE ANGELS:
Each of the angels has a task and they have names according to their duties.
The angels being present in the earth are called “Earthly angels; the ones being present in the heavens are called “Heavenly angels”.
“(The angels) say: ‘We descend not but by command of your Lord.” (Mary: 64) The mentioned angels in this holy verse, are those ones.
The number of the biggest and strongest angels is four. Allah’s orders are communicated to the other angels by these four.
The Archangel Gabriel -peace be upon him-: Because he carries divine messages and trusts, he is the closest angel to Allah the Most High. He transmited revelation to the prophets.
The Archangel Michael -peace be upon him-: He administers the affairs in the universe and in nature.
The Archangel Seraph -peace be upon him-: His duty is to blow the Trumpet. By his first blow the universe will end, at his second blow, the resurrection of human beings will begin.
The Archangel Azrael -peace be upon him-: Allah the Most High has given him the duty of taking the lives of those whose time of death has come.
The angels who bear up the Throne are stated in the holy verse:
“Those who sustain the Throne (of Allah) and those around it sing glory and praise to their Lord.” (Mu’min: 7)
Recording angels are present on the right and the left of each person. The angel on the right records good acts; the one on the left records bad ones. They record every word and act of man.
On the Day of Judgment these recorded notebooks will be delivered to their owners; the account will also be according to them.
In the holy verse:
“But verily over you (are appointed angels) to protect you, kind and honorable, writing down (your deeds): They know (and understand) all that you do.” (Infitâr: 10-12) .
Again these angels will witness man’s acts performed in the world.
Some others are charged with safeguarding people, they are always present by their sides.
In the following verses it is stated:
“He sends guardians over you.” (An’âm: 61)
“For each (such person) there are (angels) in succession, before and behind him: They guard him by command of Allah.” (Ra’d: 11)
Munkar and Nakir angels examine the dead in grave by asking questions such as: “Who is your Lord?” “Who is your Prophet?” “What is your religion?”
Some angels always pray. They know nothing about the universe; even they do not know its creation. They only pray to Allah.
Almighty Allah requires:
“Christ disdains not to serve and worship Allah, nor do the angels, those nearest (to Allah).” (Nisâ: 172)
Some angels are the guards of Paradise and Hell.
The Paradise angels will serve the believers; their leader is called Rýdvan.
On the other hand, the Hell angels will torment people. Their leader is Malik.
There are others who provide strength to believers in times of difficulty and war. As a matter of fact, in the battle of Badr, and in the Kandaf siege, they helped the believers.
In the holy verses Allah the Most High instructs:
“Remember you implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you: ‘I will assist you with a thousand of the angels, ranks on ranks.” (Anfâl: 9)
“But We sent against them a hurricane and forces that you saw not.” (Ahzâb: 9)
This help will last till the Day of Judgment.
Other than these mentioned angels; there are many with different duties.
Besides the angels, Allah the Most High has created creation called jinn. They also live on the earth together with men. They were created from fire.
In the noble verse:
“And He created jinns from fire free of smoke.” (Rahmân: 15)
Satan is also of the jinns.
Jinns, like men, have communities, tribes. They get married, reproduce, eat, drink. But it is not known where they dwell. They have the capacity of living in the stars. They are able to see men, to hear them and understand their languages. But men are unable to see jinns.
During the regular prayers, they follow the believers. Their food is bone.
They are able to take different shapes.
Believing jinns will be in the Garden with believing men; unhelieving jinns will be in Hell with unbelieving men.
“I have only created jinns and men, that they may serve Me.” (Zariyat: 56)
As stated in this verse, jinns are charged with the orders and the rules of the holy Qur’an, along with men.
The Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- had companions from the jinns, too.
Satan had worshipped Allah the Most High for a long time without transgression. But when Allah the Most High ordered the angels to bow down to Adam -peace be upon him-, he refused; he said that he was created from fire and Adam -peace be upon him- from dust. Due to this, he was arrogant. He put himself above man.
He was rejected, denied of Divine Compassion because he refused to obey Almighty Allah’s order and because he rebelled against Allah the Most High with arrogance and jealousy.
Satan wanted of Allah the Most High respite till the doomsday. When this wish was accepted, he said that he would make men stray from His straight way.
First, he caused Adam -peace be upon him- and his wife Eve to get out from the Garden.
The Evil one has no authority on those who believe in Allah the Most High sincerely and who worship Him as Allah commands.
About this matter Allah the Most High enjoins:
“No authority has he over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord.” (Nahl: 99)
TO BELIEVE IN
THE BOOKS OF ALLAH
THE MOST HIGH
Allah the Most Great has sent down to some of His prophets “Books”; to some others “Pages” in order to show men the straight way, to save them from straying and to help them attain to happiness of this world and the Hereafter.
Each prophet was given a book in order to judge the disputes between mankind.
In the verse it is instructed:
“Mankind was one single nation, and Allah sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed; but the People of the Book after the clear signs came to them did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His Grace guided the believers to the truth concerning that wherein they differed. For Allah guides whom He will to a path that is straight.” (Baqara: 213)
The prophets, who did not have independent books, followed the books that came before them.
Because of this, Allah the Most High commands to have faith in not only holy Qur’an but also all divine books sent by Him.
“O you who believe! Believe in Allah and His apostle, and the scripture which He has sent to His apostle and the scripture which He sent to those before (him).” (Nisâ: 136)
In the holy Qur’an, it is declared that a prophet was sent to each nation and a book or pages were given to each prophet. But it does not specify the names of all holy books.
Due to this, to believe in the Books of truth mentioned in the holy Qur’an is a prescription to every Muslim. If someone does not believe in the divine books sent by Him, he can not be a Muslim.
But, apart from the holy Qur’an, most of the ancient divine books have totally disappeared; all the rest existing today have become corrupted and lost their divine uniqueness. We(Muslims) believe in the original, incorrupt form of these divine books.
The earliest pages were for small communities.
They were sent to Adam -peace be upon him- 10 pages, to Seth -peace be upon him- 50 pages, to Enoch -peace be upon him- 30 pages, to Abraham -peace be upon him- 10 pages. None of these pages exist today.
The knowledges in these pages exist in our holy Qur’an in a more detailed form.
In the noble verse:
“All this is contained in earlier scriptures; the scriptures of Abraham and Moses.” (A’lâ: 18-19)
The great books were sent to prophets who had large and extended communities;
the Torah to Moses-peace be upon him,
the Psalms to David -peace be upon him,
the Gospel to Jesus -peace be upon him,
the Qur’an to Muhammad -peace be upon him.
THE HOLY QUR’AN
The Qur’an is the last and the greatest book of Allah the Most High. It was sent by means of the Archangel Gabriel to Muhammad -peace be upon him. It has been till the present unchanged, sent down for all peoples and shall never suffer corruptions.
In the holy verse He commands:
“We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption.).” (Hijr: 9)
Allah the Most High has named the book “Qur’an”:
“That this is indeed a Qur’an most honorable.” (Wâqý’ah: 77)
When the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- was 40 years old, in the month of Ramadan, the holy Qur’an has been revealed for the first time. During the period of prophethood, it was successively revealed either as verses or as suras(chapters), the period of revelation lasting 23 years.
Most of verses were revealed as a result of an event or as answers to questions.
The Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- had immediately written down any revelation. He has placed each verse in its proper location. The revelations were written on leather, shoulder blades, stones, bark and they were carefully preserved. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah and many of his companions learnt them by heart. The verses were regularly being used in prayers which reinforced their memorization with the first Muslims. Thus they were learnt by heart without being changed or lost. Muhammad -peace be upon him- instantly learnt the revelations by heart as they came and never forgot them. Allah the Most High requires:
“By degrees shall We teach you to declare (the Message), so you shall not forget.” (A’lâ: 6)
Every Ramadan, the Prophet -peace be upon him- recited the holy Qur’an revealed up to that time to Archangel Gabriel -peace be upon him-, moreover they mutually recited it. In the last Ramadan before his death, this mutual recitation was done twice.
At last, with the final revealed verse, the holy Qur’an had been completed. When Our Master Messenger Muhammad -peace be upon him- was alive, the revelation was completely written but, because they were continuously sending down, it had been not possible to assemble them as a bound book. The Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- died nine days after the last revelation.
During the period of the first caliph Abu Bakr -may Allah be well pleased with him- by the pursuance of Umar -may Allah be well pleased with him- a committee was convened to put the scattered writings of the Qur’an from the lifetime of the Prophet into one binding.
The work began in the mosque of the Prophet. Even though each verse was learnt by heart, it was understood conditionally to bring them in written form. Furthermore, it was also laid down to bring two witnesses who personally saw each successive revelation written in the presence of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him-. As a result of this work, the holy Qur’an was assembled in one binding, called a ‘Mushaf.’
During the caliphate of Othman -may Allah be well pleased with him- this main copy has been increased in number by a committee.
Till today, none of its verses, words, letters even its points have changed; and till doomsday this purity will continue. It is the only revealed Book whose text stands pure and incorrupt today.
Mankind is incapable to produce the like of this Qur’an.
The only book wich has this peculiarity is the holy Qur’an. The other divine Books had not been written when they were revealed. They were written after years from the death of their prophets. Today, there are various versions of the previous scriptures. They have many contradictions between them. They differ with each other in terms of context. Whereas, Allah the Most High had sent down only one Torah and one Gospel to Moses and Jesus respectively.
The holy Qur’an is the greatest miracle of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him-. It is unique.
The miracles of other prophets ended with their deaths; only the people of that time saw those miracles. Whereas, the Quranic miracle will last until the Day of Judgment. Nobody has been able to produce a book like it.
TO BELIEVE IN
THE PROPHETS OF ALLAH
Allah the Most Supreme has created men in order to know and believe in the existence and oneness of Him and to serve Him.
If a man properly uses his reason, he perceives the Creator of this universe.
But he can not deduce how to believe or what are Allah’s orders. He can not also perceive the appropriate way to worship, or divine injunctions. Allah the Most High has informed men of His existence in order for them to find the truth and to reach happiness in this world and in the Hereafter.
In the following verse, He decrees:
“Messengers who gave good news as well as warning, that mankind after (the coming) of the messengers should have no plea against Allah: For Allah is exalted in Power and Wise.” (Nisâ: 165)
Men were on a straight way. Then they strayed, they differed in many matters; they split into parties. As a result of this, they abandonned the straight path. And Allah the Most Great has sent prophets with glad tidings about His Compassion and with warnings about the judgment and Hell. In the following verse He instructs:
“Mankind was one single nation, and Allah sent messengers with glad tidings and warnings.” (Baqara: 213)
Allah the Most High would not send His wrath till He had sent a prophet to inform His orders and prohibitions. If He had, they would have said:
“Our Lord! If only you had sent us a messenger, we should certainly have followed your signs before we were humbled and put to shame.” (Tâ-hâ: 134)
Accordingly, nobody will escape from the divine wrath by offering an excuse, if he has earned such wrath by his deeds.
It is instructed in the noble verse:
“And there never was a people without a warner having lived among them (in the past).” (Fâtýr: 24)
“Nor would We visit with Our wrath until we had sent a messenger (to give warning).” (Isrâ: 15)
Man always needs a guide. But most importantly, he surely requires a leader concerning his spiritual eternal life.
Prophethood is a divine blessing of Almighty Allah. It can not be obtained by worshipping or seeking it from Him.
“Allah knows best with whom to place His message.” (An’âm: 124)
All of the prophets are models for us. All prophets have the greatest laudable moral qualities and virtues.
In the noble verses:
“They were, in Our sight, truly of the company of the elect and the good.” (Sâd: 47)
“All in the ranks of the righteous.” (An’âm: 85)
They are the most blessed and the most distinguished men among mankind. Almighty Allah taught and gave them the best of characters. They are the first educators of mankind.
“And to all We gave favor above the nations.” (An’âm: 86)
They never told lies. They never went astray; they followed the straight way. They never committed sins. They were the most intelligent men. They have explained to men the orders and the prohibitions of Allah the Most High.
In the verse:
“And We made them leaders guiding (men) by Our command.” (Anbiyâ: 73)
In order to prove to the people the prophethood of these Messengers, Allah the Most High has supported them with miracles.
In the noble verse He commands:
“And verily Our word went forth of old unto Our bondsmen sent (to warn), that they verily would be helped.” (Sâffât: 171-172)
Miracles are the extraordinary and wonderful acts of prophets. They are peculiar to them.
There are two types of miracles: One of them is granted by Allah the Most High to the prophets to prove their prophethood. The other comprises the miracles which are wanted by human beings to affirm their conviction in a particular prophet .
The people, who did not believe in the former miracles, were not immediately punished but those, who did not believe in the latter, were instantly punished. The camel of Salih -peace be upon him- is an example of the latter type.
In reality, all miracles are manifestations of the Omnipotence of Allah the Most High.
The great miracles are: The cleaving asunder of the moon by Muhammad’s -peace be upon him- finger indication, his prayer to the Lord for rain, the gushing out of his fingers of water... The cleaving of the sea when Moses -peace be upon him- touched with his rod. Solomon’s -peace be upon him- capacity of understanding bird’s language. Jesus’ -peace be upon him- ability of returning the dead to life by Allah’s permission.
If a miracle works through the agency of a friend of Allah (auliya), it is called “keramet”.
Muhammad -peace be upon him- instructed:
“Be afraid of the sagacity of a devout Muslim. He looks with the light of Allah the Most High.”
A friend of Allah’s (auliya) miracle is considered as the miracle of his prophet. Because he devoutly follows his prophet.
Istidraj is also like keramet. But it works through a sinner or unbeliever. These events called istidraj have no relation with the religion or faith. They do not prove that he or she is on the straight way. They are like Allah’s inciting a sinner to perdition little by little by granting success.
Muhammad -peace be upon him- commands:
If Allah does give a man whatever he wants although he continuously commits sins; know that this is his istidraj given by Allah the Most High.
The first prophet is Adam -peace be upon him. On the other hand, the Messenger of Allah Muhammad -peace be upon him- is the first created prophet but the last sent one.
“I was a prophet when Adam was between body and spirit.”
Between Adam -peace be upon him- and Our Master Muhammad -peace be upon him- there were many prophets. Some of them are mentioned in the holy Qur’an whereas some others are not.
In the verse:
“We did aforetime send messengers before you: Of them there are some whose story We have related to you, and some whose story We have not related to you.” (Mu’min: 78)
The total number of prophets is 124,000. They were the manifestations of Divine Compassion. They were the ones who knew best our Creator.
In reality, they had no differences between them.
In the holy verse:
“We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” (Baqara: 285)
But their degrees of closeness to Allah the Most High differed from each other.
“Of those messengers We have exalted some above others (in degree).” (Baqara: 253)
Although all of our Master Prophets -peace be upon them- were sent to a specific community or town, the Messenger of Allah Muhammad -peace be upon him- has been sent to the whole of mankind including jinns. All men until the doomsday are within his guidance and subject to what Allah has given him.
Allah the Most High enjoins:
“We have not sent you but as a universal (Messenger) to men, giving them glad tidings, and warning them (against sin), but most men understand not.” (Saba: 28)
Disbelieving in the prophets means disbelieving in Allah. To reject one of them means to repudiate all of them.
These prophets were continuously afraid of the majesty of their Lord and invited people to believe in the Unity of Allah. They have encouraged human beings to be His servants.
“We did not send any messenger before you, but that We revealed to him, ‘there is no god but Me; therefore worship Me alone!” (Anbiyâ: 25)
While they were performing their tasks, they never asked for payment; they never looked for a material recompense.
They have delivered the Truth to their communities by saying:
“No reward do I ask of you for it: My reward is only from the Lord of the Worlds.” (Shu’arâa: 109)
In the holy Qur’an, their stories and anecdotes are mentioned and it is stated that we should follow their guidance.
“Those were the (prophets) who received Allah’s guidance: Copy the guidance they received.” (An’am: 90)
“All that we relate to you of the stories of the messengers, with it We make firm your heart.” (Hűd: 120)
“And peace on the messengers.” (Saffat: 181)
The prophets mentioned in the holy Qur’an are: Adam, Idris, Noah, Hud, Salih, Abraham, Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Shuaib, Moses, Aaron, Elijah, Elisha, Zulkifl, Jonah, David, Salomon, Luquman, Zachariah, John the Baptist, Uzair, Zulqarnain, Jesus, Muhammad -peace be upon them all.
TO BELIEVE IN
It is a principle of faith to believe in the resurrection after death and giving of rewards or punishments for endeavor of every human being.
In the verse:
“Any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (Baqara: 62)
Allah the Most High has created the earth and the universe for a temporary period of time.
Everything will cease to exist by Almighty Allah’s order with the doomsday and the true life which is eternal shall begin. There are many Quranic verses and hadiths explaining the near advent of the Last Day.
Allah the Most Supreme orders:
“The (judgment) ever approaching draws nigh.” (Najm: 57)
“But already have come some tokens.” (Muhammad: 18)
“The hour of resurrection will certainly come, there is no doubt about it, yet most of mankind do not believe.” (Mu’min: 59)
“They ask you about the (final) Hour, when will be its appointed time? Say: ‘The knowledge thereof is with my Lord (alone): None but He can reveal as to when it will occur. Heavy were its burden through the heavens and the earth. Only, all of a sudden will it come to you.’ They ask you as if you were eager in search thereof: Say: ‘The knowledge thereof is with Allah (alone), but most men know not.” (A’râf: 187)
“Verily the Hour is coming. My design is to keep it hidden for every soul to receive its reward by the measure of its endeavor. Therefore let not such as believe not therein but follow their own lusts, divert you therefrom, lest you perish.” (Tâ-hâ: 15-16)
“And what will make you realise that perhaps the Hour is close at hand?
Only those wish to hasten it who believe not in it; those who believe hold it an awe, and know that it is the truth. Behold verily those that dispute concerning the Hour are far astray.” (Ash-shura: 17-18)
The Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- by entwining his index and middle finger said:
“The time of the Day of Resurrection is near to me like these two fingers.”
Only Allah the Most High knows its time. We only know some signs of its approaching.
The Stages Of The Hereafter Life:
1– Grave Life (Barzakh / Partition):
This is the place or state in which people will be after death and before Judgment. Barzakh means a partition, a bar or barrier.
In this grave life, the spirit will be happy or will be tormented according to the measure of its endeavor during the earthly existence.
After death, when a man is put in grave, two angels come and ask questions: “Who is your Lord?”, “To what religion do you belong”, “Who is your prophet?”. A muslim believer correctly responds to them and grave becomes a part of the gardens of Paradise. Till the Judgment, he will be happy. On the other hand, unbelievers and hypocrites can not respond to them and their graves become like holes in Hell. Till the Judgment they will be in deep suffering.
Muhammad -peace be upon him- decrees:
“The torment of grave is true. He or she who does not affirm it, will be tormented there.”
2– The First and Second Trumpet of the Day of Judgment:
When Allah the Most High orders Seraph -peace be upon him- will blow the Trumpet.
He orders in the holy verse:
“To Allah belongs the mystery of the heavens and the earth. And the decision of the Hour (of Judgment) is as the twinkling of an eye, or even quicker: For Allah has power over all things.” (Nahl: 77)
All beings will die at that time. Then, Allah the Most Great will give life to Seraph -peace be upon him- and order him to blow the Trumpet again. And the resurrection of all creation will begin. Then they will rush to the esteemed Divine presence for their accounts.
“Does he not know when that which is in the graves is scattered abroad, and that which is (locked up) in (human) breasts is made manifest.” (Âdiyât: 9-10)
Mahser is the place where people will come together on the Day of Judgment
All men and jinns since Adam -peace be upon him- after being raised from their graves, will gather on the mahser. This is the esteemed Divine presence of Allah the Most Supreme.
In the holy Qur’an:
“So by your Lord, without doubt, we shall gather them together, and (also) the evil ones (with them).” (Mary: 68)
Everybody will wait on his or her settlement of accounts and divine judgment. Nobody will care for another;each will be completely preoccupied with his own situation. In the mahser, unbelievers, tyrants and major sinners will suffer much; they will scream with regret and deep pains. Whereas for believers, the mahser will be a place of comfort; they will be happy there. In the mahser, believers will be as Allah the Most High’s guests.
In the holy Qur’an:
“The day We shall gather the righteous to (God) Most Gracious, like a band presented before a king for honors.” (Mary: 85)
In the mahser, each of our prophets will have his own pool. Each prophet’s community who will have the right to enter Paradise, will drink water from those pools. Then, they will be never thirsty. Muhammad’s -peace be upon him- pool will be greater than those of the previous prophets.
When the waiting for the Judgment becomes unbearable, people will begin to search for an intercessor. They will apply to Adam, Noah, Moses and Jesus -peace be upon them- but by offering excuses, they will deny intercessing to Allah. Finally, they shall apply to Muhammad -peace be upon him-; as a result of this, he will pray to Allah the Most Great and He will accept his prayer: Thereafter the Judgment will commence.
4– The Distribution of the Scrolls:
The Scrolls recorded by the angels in this world, will be distributed before the accounting.
In the noble verse, He commands:
“When the Scrolls are laid open.” (Takwir: 10)
These Scrolls are given to some men from their right hand side, to others from their left hand side or from their back. Those who get them from the right will deserve Paradise and their accounts will be easy. Those who get the Scrolls from the left or the back will deserve Hell and their accounts will be very difficult.
He or she, who reads his or her Scroll, shall see that every deed, good or bad, will have been written.
5– The Account:
Before the account, the light of the Throne shall appear and everybody will understand that Allah the Most High will begin to call the Account.
In the verse:
“Therefore, by the Lord, We will of a surety call them to account for all their deeds.” (Hijr: 92-93)
First of all, the prophets will be called. They will be asked whether they rightly performed their prophetic duties.
Then everyone will be called to account. They will be asked for all their deeds.
According to a hadith, these five things will be asked to everyone:
“How did he live; what did he do during his youth; how did he earn money; how did he spend his money and whether he acted in accord with his knowledge?”
Allah the Most High will be swift in accounting; the accounting of people will terminate in a moment.
Other than the Scrolls, the members of the bodies will bear witness to whatever they did in the world.
6– Scales (Mizan):
The Mizan is the scale that Allah the Most High will set up in the mahser in order to weigh deeds.
Good and bad acts of men will be weighed at these scales. The subtlest form of good and evil will be brought to account.
In the holy Qur’an:
“We shall set up scales of justice for the day of judgment, so that not a soul will be dealt with unjustly in the least. And if there be (no more than) the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it to account: And enough are We to (take account).” (Anbiyâ: 47)
Finally, the weighing starts. Due to the fear of the Judgment, hearts will jump for fear. Everybody will be terrified and in a state of panic.
As a result of the weighing, if good acts outweigh bad ones; men will deserve Paradise. If bad acts outweigh good ones, men will enter Hell to suffer for the actions they did in the world.
Allah the Most High orders in the holy Qur’an:
“And whoever does good an atom’s weight will see it then. And whoever does ill an atom’s weight will see it then.” (Zilzâl: 7-8)
For unbelievers, there will be no scale; they will go directly to Hell.
The heaviest thing in the scales will be the “Confession of faith” (I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah and Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger). Those who were subjected to cruelty in this world will meet with those who oppressed them to seek retribution for the oppression done to them.
After the divine Judgment Allah the Most High decrees:
“And O you in sin! Get you apart this Day!” (Yâ-sîn: 59)
And expedition to Hell will begin. At this time, regrets, anxieties and screams for help will become terribly loud. The entreaty for interceding will start.
7– The Interceding:
By Allah the Most Supreme’s permission, the prophets, the truthfuls, the witnesses and the righteous will intercede for sinner believers who deserve Hell.
Someone can intercede if and only if Allah the Most Great gives the permission.
He instructs in the holy verse:
“Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permits?” (Baqara: 255)
The greatest interceding will be the prayer of Muhammad -peace be upon him- to Allah the Most High for the beginning of the Judgment. His interceding will comprise all men and jinns in the mahser.
By means of interceding, some believers’ degrees will increase in Heaven. Some others while deserving entry to Hell, will enter Heaven by the help of intercession.
That day Almighty Allah’s Mercy and Compassion will be greater than any interceding. His Mercy and Compassion on the Day of Judgment will be incredible.
In the holy Qur’an, He requires:
“And My Mercy embraces all things.” (A’raf: 156)
Sýrat is the bridge which is over Hell. Everyone must cross it in order to be able to go to Heaven. Its starting point is the Judgment area (mahser); its other side is Heaven. Those who deserve Heaven will cross it; those deserving Hell will enter from it.
Width and length of Sýrat and its crossing depend on deeds of a man. For the ones who followed the straight way in this world, the crossing will be easy. On the other hand, those who went astray during their worldly lives can not pass due to their sins’ heaviness. For sinners and unbelievers, Sýrat will be more slander than a hair and sharper than a sword. They will not reach Heaven but fall into Hell.
He commands in the noble verse:
“But We shall save those who guarded against evil and We shall leave the wrong-doers therein (humbled) to their knees.” (Mary: 72)
Hell is the torment and penalty place for those who passed their lives with unbelief and sins.
Allah the Most High orders in the holy Qur’an:
“We shall bring hell on that day before the disbelievers, plain to view. Those whose eyes had been under a veil from My remembrance, and who had been unable to hear.” (Kahf: 100-101)
“On the Day that the enemies of Allah will be gathered together to the fire, they will be marched in ranks.” (Fussilat: 19)
Hell has seven levels one on top of the other; each level has its own door. The people of Hell, according to degree of their unbelief and sins, will be tormented in these levels. The first level is at the top. This is for guilty believers who committed major sins, who transgressed the rights of others and who did not repent. They will be tormented there in proportion to their sins. Then after expiation for their sins, they will return to Heaven. When the last Muslim goes out of this level the doors of Hell will be eternally closed.
The depth of Hell is endless with various types of unthinkable torments.
But the greatest sorrow of people of Hell will be deprivation of seeing Allah the Most High and Heaven.
There they will comprehend with regretting and longing that they are responsible for their ends.
In order to encourage His servants to avoid this torment, Allah instructs:
“Guard yourselves against the fire prepared for disbelievers. And obey Allah and the Messenger, that you may find mercy.” (Al’Imrân: 131-132)
Heaven is the recompensing place promised by Allah the Most High to His believers who performed good deeds.
After crossing the Sýrat (bridge), they will encounter the doors of Heaven, and its guards will say:
“Peace be with you! You have done well. Enter here to dwell forever.” (Zumar: 73)
First of all, the beloved of Allah the Most High, Muhammad -peace be upon him- will enter the Garden.
Being able to enter the Garden, is not by means of good acts but out of the Compassion of Allah the Most High. The first means to enter Heaven is faith. Good deeds determine degree of men.
There is only in name similarity between the blessings of this world and those of Heaven. They are totally different; we can not imagine them.
People of the Garden will be always happy and tranquil. Heaven is the place of peace of mind, of freedom from anxiety and griefs. There will be no hostility and dispute in Paradise.
There are many and different benefactions of Allah the Most High to people of Heaven.
But, before all these favors, the most important and greatest blessing will be the vision, from time to time, of Allah the Most High to whom no place or limit can be assigned. Each Friday, people of the Garden will go on a divine visit as a result of His invitation. When they attain this blessing, they will completely forget all other favors.
Allah the Most High encourages His servants to do good deeds:
“Be you foremost (in seeking) forgiveness from your Lord, and a Garden (of Bliss), the width whereof is as the width of heaven and earth prepared for those who believe in Allah and His apostles. That is the Grace of Allah which He bestows on whom He pleases: And Allah is the Lord of Grace abounding.” (Hadîd: 21)
TO BELIEVE IN
QADAR (FATE) AND QADA
Having faith in qadar and qada is to believe that all goodness and badness, all happiness and grief, all harm and profit and everything else happens with Almighty Allah’s permission, creation, dispensation and arrangement.
In the verse it is ordered:
“We have created all things according to a measure.” (Qamar: 49)
In another verse:
“Who has created and further, given order and proportion; who has ordained laws and granted guidance.” (A’lâ: 2-3)
According to Islam, from His endless Knowledge His knowing and willing of when, where and how will all incidents or actions take place from past eternity to future eternity is called Qadar (fate).
The bringing into existence by Allah the Most High, as recorded in the Book of Decrees, when the time comes of all the incidents and actions (i.e. everything) willed and decreed by Almighty Allah in the past eternity is called Qada.
Allah the Most High enjoins:
“No misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into existence: That is truly easy for Allah.
In order that you may not despair over matters that pass you by, nor exult over favors bestowed upon you. For Allah loves not any vainglorious boaster.” (Hadîd: 22-23)
“All things are from Allah.” (Nisâ: 78)
Allah the Most High is the Omniscient, He knows everything. He beforehand foreordained, because He knew from His endless Knowledge what men would do and say in the world. He foreordained because He knew. Nothing is outside of the Full Knowledge of Allah the Most Great.
“Every man’s fate We have fastened on his own neck.” (Isrâ: 13)
As stated in the above verse, He filmed and rolled all acts of man up and He stated all of them in the Book of Decrees. The entire acts of man are inscribed in the Book of Decrees. Man’s deeds take place according to that film.
He essentially knows all of our deeds but we do not know them. He has sent us to this world in order for us to see and learn our deeds, good or bad.
In the Holy Qur’an He requires:
“He knows what (appears to His creatures as) before or after or behind them: But they shall not compass it with their knowledge.” (Tâhâ: 110)
“Who has created life and death that He may try you, which of you is best in conduct.” (Mulk: 2)
Of course, we will encounter hardships, we will be tested and we will suffer. According to our patience and loyalty Almighty Allah will judge our devotion.
If Allah has not sent us to this world, we would have claimed:”O our Lord! As your servants we will never do bad deeds.” Allah has sent us down in order to show us our own deeds. “O My servants! I have known your acts but see now you your own deeds.” He, from His endless Knowledge knows whatever we will do.
He enjoins in His holy verse:
“Had Allah known of any good in them He would have made them hear.” (Anfal:23)
Moreover, there is also His own decree. This decree does not exist in the Book of decrees and in the film of man. It only belongs to Him.
Faith, unbelief, obedience, straying, goodness, badness... All of these are the things that men want from Allah the Most High. Whatever they want, good or bad, is given to them.
Allah the Most High directs:
“Whoever seeks the harvest of the Hereafter, We increase his harvest; and whoever seeks the harvest of this world, We give him of it here, but in the Hereafter he will have no portion.” (Ash-shűrâ: 20)
Some ask for faith, obedience and the hereafter.
As a result of this, He grants what they want. He facilitates him into doing such deeds.
This is stated in the holy Qur’an:
“As for those who strive in Us, We surely guide them to Our paths.” (Ankabut: 69)
Some others only want this world and badness.
Because they ask for bad, He facilitates them into doing such deeds.
If you want goodness, He grants good deeds; if you want badness, He gives bad deeds.
Here the purpose is: On the Day of Judgment, men can not claim: “O our Lord! You obliged us to act as You willed. We are not guilty!”
“That was lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: ‘Of this we were unaware.” (A’raf: 172)
He always wants goodness of His servants. He never compels badness upon His servants.
Everyone is given his own wish and he or she acts according to his or her desire.
Satan referred his situation to qadar; he became disbeliever. Adam -peace be upon him- turned to Almighty Allah in repentance; as a result of this Allah the Most Supreme forgave him.
A servant must know that he is dependent on Him, he must pray to Him, he must repent Him, he must entreat Him; he must know nothing but Him.
All of our Prophets -peace be upon them- worshipped although they were innocent and sinnless.
Ali -may Allah be well pleased with him- narrated:
“We were in the company of the Prophet of Allah -peace be upon him- and he said, ‘There is none among you but has his place written for him, either in Paradise or in the Hell-Fire.’ We said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Shall we depend on this fact and give up work?’ He replied, ‘No! Carry on doing good deeds, for everybody will find easy (to do) such deeds as will lead him to his destined place.’ Then the Prophet -peace be upon him- recited the following verses:
“So he who gives (in charity) and guards himself (by obeying Allah) and (in all sincerity) testifies to the Best, We will indeed make smooth for him the path to Bliss.
But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient, and gives the lie to the Best, We will indeed make smooth for him the path to misery.” (Layl: 5-10)
Almighty Allah states in the holy Qur’an:
“Whoever desires the immediate (gains of this worldly life) We give him here whatever We will; then We grant him Hell, where he will burn, despised and rejected. And whosoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it properly, being a believer, his endeavors shall find favor.
Each do We supply, both these (who desire the world ) and those (who desire the Hereafter) from the bounty of your Lord. And the bounty of your Lord can never be withheld.” (Isrâ: 18-19-20)
Man has his own free will. He is responsible for his deeds due to this ability of free selection.
“You shall certainly be called to account for all your actions.” (Nahl: 93)
“Whoever does good, benefits his own soul; and whoever does evil, will himself bear its consequences; your Lord is never unjust to His servants.” (Fussilet: 46)
On the other hand, the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- has recommended not to mention much about qadar. True nature of qadar is a secret. Satan referred his situation to qadar, he did not entreat Allah the Most High and became unbeliever. Whereas, Adam -peace be upon him- referred the mistake to himself, he repented and followed the straight way. Due to this, Allah the Most Great accepted his repentance.
Muhammad -peace be upon him- informs:
“He, who is satisfied with Almighty Allah’s qadar and qada is loved by Allah”.
“To believe in qadar removes sadness and grief.”
In a holy verse:
“Whatever good (o man) happens to you is from Allah: But whatever evil happens to you is from your (own) soul.” (Nisa: 79)
According to this verse, a servant must know that all goodness is from Allah; evil is from his own soul.
Whoever complies with the above order attains the favor which is in the below verses:
“Say: ‘Nothing will befall us except what Allah has ordained. He is our Guardian. In Him let the believers put their trust.” (Tauba: 51)
“And those who having done something to be ashamed of or wronged their own souls, earnestly bring Allah to mind and ask for forgiveness for their sins: And who can forgive sins except Allah? And are never obstinate in persisting knowingly in (the wrong) they have done.” (Âl’ Imran: 135)
HOW DID THE SCHOOLS ARISE?
In the time of the prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him-, when the Muslims faced any difficulty in religion or they could not understand a decree of Islam, they used to ask about those directly to the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- and received the true knowledge.
After the Prophet of Allah -peace be upon him- passed away, the borders of the Islamic country expanded by conquests and the population increased with different nations. At that time the Muslim jurists among the companions of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- applied their opinions in order to solve the new religious cases arisen.
In the time of the companions of Allah’s Messenger -peace be upon him-, religious issues and their related decrees were not as much as the subsequent periods. The companions were only concerned with the issues they faced at that time and they sought solutions for those. So, they were not concerned about the future issues that had not occurred yet. There were almost no differences in their opinions.
In the time of Taabi’een (the Muslims who have seen any of the companions of the prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him-) well knowledged scholars who had the authority, solved various religious problems in the light of the Holy Quran and the tradition of Allah’s Messenger -peace be upon him.
After the Taabi’een, their students comes. They are called Tabe-i Taabi’een. The jurisprudential schools started in this period.
In the time of the companions of the Holy Prophet -peace be upon him- and in the time of the Taabi’een, voting was very important. In the time of the Taabi’een, new application of the opinions arose, therefore differences in the Muslims’ opinions increased, also discussions between the Muslims increased and a lot of divisions were noticed.
Some groups were formed around some great scholars who knew the commands of Islam the best and who solved the newly faced issues in the guidance of the Holy Quran and the traditions of Muhammad -peace be upon him. The people who were incapable to make a decree from Quran and the traditions of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- were following the Muslim jurists. Those people and groups became schools in time. So, the jurisprudential schools arose like Hanefi, Shafee, Mâliki and Hanbeli schools.
Although there have been very valuable Muslim jurists like Hasan Basri, Evzâi, Sevri, Taberi, we take four great schools because of the common assaults to the schools today. Because, the people gone astray manipulate schools.
Different applications after the difference in opinions have no relation with the core of the religion. These are just the applications of the universal divine commandments on special occasions with different commentaries.
All Muslim jurists were dependent on the Holy Quran and the traditions of Allah’s Messenger -peace be upon him- although they had different opinions on several issues. They did not tolerate anyone who was against the opinions of the companions of Muhammad -peace be upon him. Because the companions of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- experienced the revelation of the verses and their applications, they saw, they practiced in their lives by learning all of their knowledge from the Prophet of Allah -peace be upon him. Then, they taught these to the Muslims coming after them.
In Islam there is no difference in opinions on the issues that their commands clearly mentioned in the verses of the Holy Qur’an or the sayings of Allah’s Prophet, which are agreed upon by scholars. Denying any of those commands makes a person out of the religion and makes him a non-believer.
The very few differences in the opinions of the schools belong to the commands of the application area of Islam whic is called “Furu”. The great Muslim jurists of Islam searched about the reasons of those different opinions carefully, and they made a great effort to find a solution to those.
Allah’s judgment is important, not individuals. Allah is the only One who creates, judges and sustains life.
These scholars had very deep knowledge. Therefore, they understood Qur’an and hadiths best.
They were ready to die to keep the religion pure. They sacrificed their lives and endured a lot of tortures. They were like a star in the religion. The Muslim jurists never had difference of opinions on the matters that had been explicitly in Qur’an and Hadith. Having made commentaries, they based them on these two primary sources. They interpreted some commands that are mentioned in Qur’an and Hadiths.
Let’s give an example of the emergence of the schools of thought and their mercy on the whole muslim community.
The Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- said in one of his hadiths,
“One sheep out of each forty sheep must be given as the poor due (zakat).”
Hanefi scholars said that actual sheep or its value must be given. Because the objective of the poor due, being mandatory, is to meet poor people’s needs. If the needy needs sheep, then sheep should be given. If the value of the sheep is needed, then its value should be given. It means that someone who has forty sheep and is responsible for giving the poor due (zakat), fulfills their duty by giving the value of the sheep. It is not necessary to give an actual sheep.
On the other hand, Shafee scholars said, this commentary is far from the meaning of the hadith. Because the meaning understood from the words of the hadith is to give an actual sheep. Reason being that, the Prophet of Allah -peace be upon him- specified sheep. Therefore, Shafee scholars invalidate giving the value of the sheep instead of an actual sheep. In this matter, Maliki and Hanbeli scholars agree with the Shafee scholars.
The latter hadith was applied by Muaz bin Jabal -may Allah be pleased with him- as follows:
He said to the Yemenis: “Instead of barley and millet, bring me hamis (clothes) or used garments. This is easier for you and this is more useful for the companions of Allah’s Prophet -peace be upon him- in Madina.” When he was collecting the poor due (zakat), instead of the usual poor due goods, he took garments. Garments were plentiful in Yemen and it was too easy for the Yemenis to give garments. But in Madina garments were scarce. So companions of Allah’s Prophet -peace be upon him- needed them.
The divine wisdom of this application is to provide necessities such as goods, drinks and different needs for the poor people. Thereby, to give the value of goods as the poor due is more beneficial to meet these needs.
“The prayer (five daily) of a person, who does not recite the chapter ‘Fatihah’ (the opening chapter of the Holy Quran), is not acceptable.” (Buhari)
According to Imam Shafee -blessings of Allah be upon him- it is mandatory to recite the chapter “Fatihah” for the imam (leader in congregational prayers) and the congregation in each unit of the five time daily prayers. After that, reciting an additional chapter or verses is desirable.
According to Imam Azam -blessings of Allah be upon him- the five time daily prayers without recitation of chapter “Fatihah” is not complete. Congregation is satisfied with the recitation of the imam, and imam naturally recites.
According to Imam Malik -blessings of Allah be upon him- and Imam Ahmed bin Hanbel -blessings of Allah be upon him- imam recites Fatihah and congregation just follows and listens to him in the five time daily prayers which requires vocal recitation. In the five time daily prayers in which recitations are not vocal, reciting the chapter “Fatihah” is mandatory. Without the recitation of the chapter “Fatihah” prayer is not acceptable.
For the martyrs of Uhud:
“Bury them along with the blood present on their body (in a martyrdom state) and do not wash their body.”
Not washing the body of the martyrs is agreed by all followers of the Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him. For the funeral prayer of martyrs, Imam Azam said that it can be performed and the other three schools imams said, it should not be performed.
“The one who goes back from his word regarding his charity, is like a dog that vomits and regurgitates.”
Imam Azam -blessings of Allah be upon him- says, “If there are no obstacles for the charity, one may go back from that charity but it is an undesirable action.”
Imam Shafee -blessings of Allah be upon him- and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbel -blessings of Allah be upon him- said, “No one can go back from his charity. This saying of the Prophet indicates that going back from any charity is unlawful. Only a father can go back from a charity which he made to his son.”
“Imams lead you in your prayers. If they lead properly you (congregation) and they get a reward from Allah. If they make a fault you get the reward and the sin arising from their fault belongs to them.”
According to Imam Shafee “If congregation, later on, finds out that the imam led the prayer without proper ablution, the congregation does not have to repeat their prayer.”
Imam Azam says, “The prayer of a congregation is not proper unless the imam’s prayer is proper.”
“If it would not be a hardship for my followers, I would command them to pray the late night prayer in the first one-third of the night.”
According to Imam Azam; although it is desirable to pray in the first one-third of the night, it is not desirable to perform it in the second half of the night.
It is desirable to pray in the first one-third of the night according to Imam Shafee also.
We can give the following example to the difference of Islamic jurists on the verses of the Holy Quran:
In the verse about zýhar kefareti:
“And for him who is unable to do so, he should feed sixty of the poor.” (Mujadilah: 4)
From this verse, the Hanefi scholars understood to provide the food of 60 poor people, therefore giving that amount of food. The one who has to pay the atonement may feed 60 poor people in one day, or he/she can feed one needy for 60 days. Both applications are permissible according to Hanefi scholars.
The purpose of the command in this verse is to satisfy the hunger of sixty needy people and to meet their food needs. To cover the same need of a needy for 60 days is like feeding sixty needy people in one day.
According to Shafee scholars since the word “food” is not mentioned in the verse explicitly; the commentary of “feeding” disregards the number of people which is mentioned as 60. However, the possible purpose in the wisdom of this verse is feeding “sixty” needy. Because there is blessing and many virtues in congregation. Thus, there might be an opportunity to pray (for forgivenes) for the one who is in atonement.
So, the real scholars and imams made their jurisdictions in such ways. Any of these real jurists did not give opinion on the commands, which are certain by the verses of the Holy Quran and the traditions of Allah’s Messenger -peace be upon him. Also their opinions were not related to faith issues but deeds.
Our Master, the Prophet of Allah -peace be upon him- said;
“The difference of the opinions in my nation, is a mercy from Allah.”
It means, since the different opinions between great scholars and Muslim jurists broaden the limits of the Islamic laws and make the transactions between Muslims easier; they become a cause for the mercy of Allah.
Otherwise, the different opinions of the ignorant, so called scholars are nothing but discord. Their purpose is not the unity of the Muslims but separatism. These kind of people’s actions are always evil. They are the ones who are deceived by their prides.
How are they going to stand before their Lord?
People usually look for breaks in the religion just because they obey their desires; and practicing Islam and applying the commands of Allah appears difficult to their souls. Because the fake scholars know these desires of the people, they give, so called, corrupt Islamic decrees that people shall like so that people might follow them. Therefore, the ones who call themselves “modern Muslims” are the followers of these, so called scholars.
Anyway, the Prophet of Allah -peace be upon him- said, centuries before, that the most evil people living under the sky will be scholars of the last age. Do not be surprised at them. Such kinds of people who have gone astray not only exist today but they were before and will be in the future. Likewise they appeared before, they will appear in the future.
The true Muslim jurists were performing their jurisdictions. Contrary to these, these scholars of the last age perform their corruption.
Those who do not practice Islam in their lives are not authorized to talk about Islam. The ones who speak without knowledge, take lightly the verses in Qur’an and hadiths of Muhammad -peace be upon him. Thus, eliminating verses and hadiths, they make themselves destroyers.
These people appear as artificial flowers. Their spirit are dead, only their desires live, they are like the living dead.
People that have dead spirit, sealed hearts and worship the desires of their souls and they are evil and liars. While they are going astray, they try to mislead other people.
Yet Allah, the Exalted, in one of the verses says to mankind:
“His verily is all creation and commandment.” (A’raf: 54)
The creation has no judgment no matter who he or she is. Although this is the case, one who leaves Allah’s orders and follows his or her desires, it means he declares his own soul as idol. Whomsoever accepts the words of these types of people also takes them to be their lords.
In one of the verses of the Holy Qur’an, Allah, the Exalted, commands:
“Have you seen him who chooses for his god his own lust? Would you then be guardian over him.” (Furqan: 43)
Those, who follow his own desires instead of divine orders, both set partners with Allah, the Exalted, and disbelieve. Know this as the only truth. The essence is the words of Allah, the Exalted, and the declaration of the Prophet of Allah -peace be upon him.
Allah, the Exalted, says in a verse in the Holy Qur’an:
“They will fancy that they have some standing. Is it not they who are the liars!
The devil has engrossed them and so has caused them to forget remembrance of Allah. They are the devil’s party. Is it not the devil’s party who will be the losers!” (Mujadilah: 18-19)
The ones who receive the essence of Islam speak with principal. However, those, who do not take or understand the essence of religion, speak nonsense. Those that speak nonsense take the inspiration from Satan with the support of their idol desires by following his/her own opinions. The truth and sign about those people is this.
The source of those, who have light, is Allah and His Messenger. The source of others is the corruption of Satan and his/her own opinions. One is of the men of Allah, the other is of the men of going astray.
The orders of Allah, the Exalted, are principals, the creation has no right of commanding. The right to institute an order or prohibition only belongs to Allah, the Exalted.
In a verse in the Qur’an Allah, the Exalted, says:
“The command belongs only to Allah, the Sublime.” (Mumin: 12)
Yet they speak of their opinions without any proof and support. They do not know, see or want to see this verse in the Qur’an. They deny this verse. However, denying even one verse in the Holy Qur’an makes the person unbeliever.
They not only change the judgment of Allah, the Exalted and put their own judgment instead of them but also they deny the verses of the Holy Qur’an. This is the subversion of Islam, the highest non-believing to Allah, the Exalted. These people are the worst men on this earth.
Allah, the Exalted, declares that only those that reach to “Ulul-elbab” will know the truth. Because their teacher is directly Almighty Allah.
They practice the commandments of Allah, the Exalted, stay away from their prohibitions, thus they live Islam.
These people lived Islam as described in the following holy verse and put effort on other people so that they also live Islam:
“Therefore stand firm (in the straight Path) as you are commanded.” (Hud: 112)
A person, who does not practice the commandments of Allah, the Exalted, and who does not stay away from every prohibited condition, can never be of the men of Truth.
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