GLOSSARY

 

A

Abu Bakr -may Allah be well pleased with him : He is the first caliph (Muslim leader) after the death of the Messenger of Allah Muhammad -peace be upon him.

Ali -may Allah be well pleased with him: He is the fourth caliph after Muhammad -peace be upon him.

Al-Haqq: One of the names of Allah.

Adhan: The call to prayer pronounced loudly to indicate that the time of praying is due.

Ahmad: Muhammad -peace be upon him; Ahmad being one of his names.

Aisha: One of the wives of the Messenger of Allah Muhammad. The wives of the Prophet are addressed as ‘mothers of the Believers’.

Allah: The word ‘Allah’ is the Personal name, universal name of the only one Lord for all the universe. He is its Creator, Organizer, Planner, Sustainer and the Giver of Security, etc... He has no partner or the like. He has neither beginning nor end to His existence. He is free from any blemish or fault. None has the right to be worshipped (e.g. praying, invoking, asking for help, swearing, slaughtering sacrifices, giving charity, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.) but Allah. This Personal name, ‘Allah’, has no equivalent in any other language. It is the name of His Person. The word ‘God’ or its equivalents in other languages can not replace the name of Allah. The word ‘God’ in English, ‘Dieu’ in French, ‘Huda’ in Persian are not the equivalent of Allah. All these words have plurals in their languages. However, in Arabic language the word Allah has no plural form. Allah is One and has no equal.

Allah-u Akbar: Allah is the Most Great.

Antichrist: A man who will come when the time nears the doomsday. He will be working corruption on the earth but he will be slain by Jesus -peace be upon him.

Ansar: The companions of Allah’s Messenger -peace be upon him- from the inhabitants of Madina, who embraced Islam and supported it and who received and entertained the Muslim emigrants from Mecca.

Amin: O Allah, accept our invocation.

Auliyâ (saint): A Friend of Allah. No fear shall come upon them; neither shall they grieve. They believe Allah and fear Allah much. He honors them (auliyâ-saints) with His love and friendship. None has the right to be worshipped including angel, Prophet Jesus, Messenger, Ezra, Muhammad, saint, idol the sun and all other kinds of false deities, but ALLAH.

Allah, the Exalted, states in His holy verses:

“Behold! Verily on the Friends of Allah there is no fear, nor shall they grieve; those who believe and (constantly) guard against evil. For them are glad tidings, in the life of the present and in the hereafter. No change can there be in the Words of Allah. This is indeed the supreme felicity.” (Yunus: 62-63-64)

Ayat-al-Kursi: Qur’anic Verse No: 255 of Surah Baqara.

 

B

Badr: A place about 150 kilometer to the south of Madina where the first great battle in Islamic history took place.

Buraq: An animal bigger than a donkey and smaller than a horse on which the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- went for the Miraj.

 

C

Caliph: The Muslim leader.

Confession of Faith: “There is no deity but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.” This is the first vital principle of Islam. In order to be a Muslim, one has to testify this sentence with his or her heart. It is also essential to utter this confession of faith.

 

F

Fatihah: The first surah (chapter) in the holy Qur’an.

 

H

Hadith: Record of saying or action of the Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him. The statements of the Prophet; i.e. his sayings, deeds, approvals, etc...

Haram: Unlawful, forbidden and punishable from the viewpoint of the religion.

Hajj:Pilgrimage to Mecca.

Hira: A well-known cave in a mountain near Mecca where the first revelation of the holy Qur’an took place.

Hudaybiyah: A well-known place ten miles from Mecca on the way to Jeddah.

 

I

Imam: The person who leads others in the prayer or the Muslim ruler.

Ishmael -peace be upon him: One of the Prophets mentioned in the holy Qur’an.

 

J

Jihad: Holy fighting in the Cause of Allah or any other kind of effort to make Allah’s Word (Islam) superior. Jihad is regarded as one of the fundamentals of Islam.

Jinn: A creation created by Allah the Most Supreme from fire.

Jizya: Head tax imposed by Islam on all non-Muslims living under the protection of an Islamic government.

 

K

Kaaba: The House of Allah in Mecca where Muslims go on pilgrimage, and towards which all Muslims turn their faces in prayer.

Khadija: One of the wives of the Messenger of Allah Muhammad -peace be upon him. The wives of the Prophet -peace be upon him- are addressed as ‘mothers of the believers’.

 

L

La ilaha ill-Allah: There is no deity but Allah.

 

M

Mecca: The holy City where there is Kaaba. Muslims go Mecca to perform Hajj (pilgrimage).

Madina: Well-known town where the Messenger of Allah’s -peace be upon him- mosque is situated.

Masjid-al Aqsa: The most sacred mosque in Jerusalem.

Masjid-al Haram: The most sacred mosque in Mecca. The Ka’ba is situated in it.

Miraj: The ascent of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- (by soul and body) to the heavens and his seeing Allah, the Exalted.

Muhammad -peace be upon him: He is the last Messenger of Allah and the prophet of the last religion, Islam. Almighty Allah has sent down to him the last holy Book, Qur’an.

Muhajir: Anyone of the early Muslims who had migrated from Mecca to Madina in the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger -peace be upon him.

 

N

Nisab: Minimum amount of property liable to payment of the Zakat.

 

O

Othman -may Allah be well pleased with him: He is the third caliph after Muhammad -peace be upon him.

 

U

Uhud: A well-known mountain in Madina. One of the great battles in the Islamic history took place at its foot.

 

P

People of the Book: The Jews and the Christians.

 

Q

Qada: The bringing into existence by Almighty Allah, as recorded in the Book of Decrees, when the time comes of all the incidents and actions (i.e. everything) willed and decreed by Allah the Most Great in the past eternity is called Qada.

Qadar: From His endless knowledge, His knowing and willing of when, where and how will all incidents or actions take place from past eternity to future eternity is called Qadar.

Qýblah: The direction in which all Muslims turn their faces in prayers and that direction is towards the Ka’ba in Mecca.

Qur’an: The Qur’an is the last and the most exalted holy Book of Almighty Allah sent down to the last Messenger, Muhammad -peace be upon him.

Quraysh: One of the greatest tribes in Arabia in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance.

 

R

Rabb: Lord, Owner (it is also one of the Names of Allah).

Ramadan: The month of fasting. It is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. In it the holy Qur’an started to be revealed to our Prophet.

Regular Prayers: Prayer is the most superior of all types of worship. After testifying to Allah’s existence and Unity and to Muhammad’s -peace be upon him- prophethood, performing these enjoined prayers five times a day at the specified times is compulsory for every Muslim.

S

Saba: Easterly wind.

Salih -peace be upon him: One of the Prophets mentioned in the holy Qur’an.

Scroll: The record of man’s deeds.

Sýrat: Originally means “a road”; it also means the bridge that will be laid across hell-fire for the people to pass over on the Day of Judgment. It is described as sharper than a sword and thinner than a hair.

Soul: It is a dark vapor situated in the abdominal cavity of body. It is composed of water, soil, air and fire. It promts man to do evil wicked deeds. Its harms are more grave than those of a visible enemy. In the holy Qur’an, Allah All-mighty ordains: “Indeed he succeeds who purifies his own soul and indeed he fails who corrupts it.” (Shams:9-10)

Sunna: Legal way or ways, orders, acts of worship and statements etc. of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- that have become models to be followed by the Muslims.

Sura: The chapters of the holy Qur’an.

 

 

T

Takbir: Saying Allah-u akbar (Allah is the Most Great).

The Children of Israel: The Israelites.

The Most High, the Most Great, the Most Supreme: In the book these words are used in order to praise, honor and thanks to Allah.

 

U

Umar -may Allah be well pleased with him: He is the second caliph after Muhammad -peace be upon him.

 

Z

Zakat: A certain fixed proportion of the wealth of every rich Muslim to be paid yearly for the benefit of the poor in the Muslim community. The payment of zakat is obligatory as it is one of the five pillars of Islam. Zakat is the major economic means for establishing social justice and leading the Muslim society to prosperity and security.


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